Tout juste sorti des presses, le livre Reflections on Artificial Intelligence for Humanity est un ouvrage en anglais auquel plusieurs membres de l’OBVIA et Raja Chatila, professeur émérite de l’Université de Sorbonne et collaborateur de l’OBVIA, ont participé par la rédaction d’un chapitre.
Résumé du livre
We already observe the positive effects of AI in almost every field, and foresee its potential to help address our sustainable development goals and the urgent challenges for the preservation of the environment. We also perceive that the risks related to the safety, security, confidentiality, and fairness of AI systems, the threats to free will of possibly manipulative systems, as well as the impact of AI on the economy, employment, human rights, equality, diversity, inclusion, and social cohesion need to be better assessed. The development and use of AI must be guided by principles of social cohesion, environmental sustainability, resource sharing, and inclusion. It has to integrate human rights, and social, cultural, and ethical values of democracy. It requires continued education and training as well as continual assessment of its effects through social deliberation.
The “Reflections on AI for Humanity” proposed in this book develop the following issues and sketch approaches for addressing them:
- How can we ensure the security requirements of critical applications and the safety and confidentiality of data communication and processing? What techniques and regulations for the validation, certification, and audit of AI tools are needed to develop confidence in AI? How can we identify and overcome biases in algorithms? How do we design systems that respect essential human values, ensuring moral equality and inclusion?
- What kinds of governance mechanisms are needed for personal data, metadata, and aggregated data at various levels?
- What are the effects of AI and automation on the transformation and social division of labor? What are the impacts on economic structures? What proactive and accommodation measures will be required?
- How will people benefit from decision support systems and personal digital assistants without the risk of manipulation? How do we design transparent and intelligible procedures and ensure that their functions reflect our values and criteria? How can we anticipate failure and restore human control over an AI system when it operates outside its intended scope?
- How can we devote a substantial part of our research and development resources to the major challenges of our time such as climate, environment, health, and education?